The Day of the Dead (Día de Muertos) Events and Art and Culture Festivals I Visited (referenced in this article)
- Festival Internacional Cervantino in Guanajuato, Guanajuato named after Cervantes is one of the world’s largest and most important arts and cultural festivals held every October.
- Megaofrenda UNAM: Festival Universitario de Día de Muertos is a Day of the Dead Festival held at Mexico’s largest university, UNAM and displays dozens of float-size (mega) altars or offerings paying homage to a different artist, living or dead each year.
- Feria de las Calacas de Alas y Raíces or Festival of the Skeletons of Wings and Roots is a Day of the Dead festival held at the National Center of Art in Mexico City.
- Festival Quimera Metepec: Festival International de Arte y Cultura similar to Festival Cervantino is an annual festival of music, dance, fine arts and street fairs throughout October in Metepec.
- San Pedro Tláhuac’s Day of the Dead event and Festival de las Almas (Souls), a town on the outskirts of Mexico City.
- Megaofrenda at a Mexico City Middle School
- A Cemetery in Tláhuac, Mexico City, Mexico
Day of the Dead, A 3-Day Celebration
Contrary to its name, Day of the Dead (Día de Muertos in Mexico, latinos in the US will add a “Los”: Día de Los Muertos) is a 3-day celebration with many of the Day of the Dead traditions kicking off much earlier. Mexicans can spend a year working on their megaofrendas (referenced later) and throughout the month of October, vendors sell the Day of the Dead bread (pan de muerto) and sugar skulls (calaveras).
October 31: Day of the Dead Altar
Traditionally, on October 31, Mexicans construct their altars with offerings (ofrendas) in schools, churches, households and community areas. As modern-day ofrendas outside the home are intricate handmade works of art they often require much more dedicated time, up to a year. Later in the article, I dismantle the Day of the Dead altar and its many decorations.
November 1: All Saints Day
All Saints Day (Día de Todos Los Santos) is the day in which the souls of the children return. The influence of Halloween is evident as children will carry pumpkins and “pedir calavaritas” (“trick-or-treat”) for candy and money on this day.
November 2: Día de Muertos
The holiday’s namesake, All Souls Day (Día de Muertos) falls on November 2 when it’s thought the souls of the adults return. Adults and children may attend parties with games and sweet treats. With the influence of Halloween, it’s common for children and adults alike to dress up in costume. Generally, they’ll wear skull faces with a skeleton shirt or a “calavera catrina” costume (a skeleton dressed in late 19th century / early 20th century European women’s attire). I describe the “calavera catrina” below. Those Mexican who choose to dress up might do so on All Souls Day, all three days or all weekend depending on when the holiday falls.
More traditionally and commonly, individuals and families go to the mausoleum (panteón) or cemetery (cementerio) to have a picnic or even sleep there. My uncle took me to a cemetery in San Pedro Tláhuac, a neighborhood in Mexico City so I could experience the Day of the Dead. Later in the article, I describe the visit.
Day of the Dead History
Borne from a pre-Hispanic, Aztecan tradition influenced by Catholicism, 20th century Mexican artists and Halloween, the Day of the Dead is a vibrant, cultural celebration of both the living and the dead. As Mexican culture is steeped in art, folklore and food so are the Day of the Dead traditions. Modern-day Day of the Dead costumes and Day of the Dead art can be attributed to two important 20th-century Mexican artists:
José Guadalupe Posada (1852-1913) and “La Calavera de la Catrina”
Day of the Dead is not a solemn event. Mexicans are making fun of and laughing at death (la muerte). The satirical aspect of Day of the Dead is credited to the cartoonist, illustrator and artist, José Guadalupe Posada and the Mexican muralist, Diego Rivera. Posada is known posthumously for his calaveras (skulls) and his most famous work, “La Calavera de la Catrina” (elegant skull), a black-and-white zinc etching. In this sketch, he places a hat in fashion with the European aristocracy at the time on a skull to suggest upper class Mexicans were embracing European sensibilities too liberally.
Diego Rivera (1886-1957) and “Sueño de un Tarde Dominical en la Almendra Central”
In 1948, Diego Rivera popularized La Calavera Catrina by adding a body and name to the drawing in his mural, “Sueño de un Tarde Dominical en la Almendra Central” (Dream of a Sunday Afternoon Along Central Almendra). If you want to be authentic and wear a Day of the Dead costume for Halloween in the US, wear a 19th Century European dress and wide-brimmed hat with your painted Calavera Catrina face.
The Fluidity of Culture and Mexico’s Modern-Day Day of the Dead
Culture being fluid, the Day of the Dead continues to expand and morph. While the citizens were not unanimous, Mexico City elected to host its very first Day of the Dead parade in 2016, in response to tourist demand after seeing the James Bond film, ‘Spectre.’ USA’s Halloween influences Mexico’s Day of the Dead as children and adults alike dress up and children ask for skull candy and coins (trick-or-treat or pedir calavaritas) while carrying plastic jack-o-lanterns. The influence seeps from South to North as well. While the Day of the Dead costume is a popular one during Halloween stateside, I’ve seen references to the Day of the Dead throughout the year in New York City.
Anecdotally, my Mexican mom (who lived in Mexico from 1944 to 1967) said her family’s Day of the Dead activities included: gifting sugar skulls for decoration (though the kids always ended up eating them), eating pan de muerto and attending mass where the priests would burn incense (copal). It’s important to note her family never went to the cemetery or built altars at home or at school. I have a large family in Mexico, living all over the country (Cancún, Chiapas, Veracruz, Toluca, Mexico City, Querétaro, Guadalajara, Monterrey) and none that I’m aware of visited a cemetery when I was last there during the holiday. My mom said indigenous families visited the cemeteries. I mention it to emphasize not all Mexicans go to the cemetery. Whether you interpret it as cultural (mis)appropriation, or the fluidity of culture or a bit of both, without question, since my mom left Mexico, the Day of the Dead has been commercialized and pop-culturalized in both Mexico and abroad. So while a family may not participate in the traditional custom of setting up an altar at a cemetery, it is highly likely that today they’ll participate in any of the following activities: gift sugar skulls (las calaveritas de azúcar), eat day of the dead bread (pan de muerto), display altars at home (like my uncle’s pictured below), school or church, put up decorations, host or attend a party, wear a costume, create or visit a megaofrenda at a school, church, art center etc., attend a Day of the Dead festival or carnival and since 2016, watch the Day of the Dead parade in Mexico City.
Common Day of the Dead Altar Offerings and Day of the Dead Decorations
Altars are a common Day of the Dead tradition found in households, cemeteries, educational and cultural institutions, art center and museums, neighborhood plazas and churches. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), one of the largest and leading universities in the Spanish-speaking world, holds an annual megaofrenda, displaying some 120 life-size, elaborate ofrendas. In contrast, my uncle’s household ofrenda for my grandparents was much simpler. It included a photo, many of the items listed below, a bottle of rum and two shots glasses.
Day of the Dead Skulls (Calaveras) of all shapes, sizes, color and design are a key offering. The most common calaveras are made of sugar and are called alfeñiques. Likewise, fruit, animals and human skeletons in both fanciful and everyday scenes of life are made of sugar and sold at markets. The calavera and catrina are prominent symbols in modern-day Day of the Dead art, costumes and traditions. Sugar calaveras and other candies are a staple ofrenda (offering) for the deceased. As well, they can be given as gifts for the living. In this case, the sugar skull will have a place to write your name. As Mexico has a strong artesian tradition, calaveras and catrinas can be purchased in various sizes, styles and materials.
Day of the Dead Candy spans far beyond sugared skulls. Day of the Dead candy can be made from dulce de leche, marzipan (mazapán) made of almonds or pumpkin seeds, or chocolate. Popular shapes include skulls, fruit, animals and baskets.
Day of the Dead Calavera Catrina is a skeleton woman with a painted skull face dressed in 19th-century European attire. As mentioned above, many interpretations are seen during the Día de Muertos.
Day of the Dead Calavera Catrina Figurines The Calavera Catrina is one of Mexico’s most important personalities and artists miss no opportunity to humanize skeletons to represent all aspects of Mexican society.
Dead of the Dead Calaveras Literarias are tongue-and-cheek epitaphs written for the living, such as famous people or teachers and often for competitions. I visited a middle school with a beautiful ofrenda that took the students a month to build. Also displayed on enormous boards were a series of calaveras literarias writtened by the students accompanied by pictures of calaveras. Each year, the students and faculty of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), one of the top universities of the world and a UNESCO World Heritage site create life-size altars with ofrendas and calaveras literarias to collectively honor a book or author.
Day of the Dead Marigolds (Cempasuchiles) are the flowers of Día de Muertos. The color and scent trace the path for the deceased to make their way home.
Day of the Dead Incense (Copal) is burned to rid the area of evil spirits.
Day of the Dead Fruit adorn the altars.
Dead of the Day Bread (Pan de Muerto) is a sweet, circular egg bread designed and sprinkled with sugar to look like twisted bones eaten during the month leading up to Dia de Muertos. Generally neutral in color, they can also be red. As well, Day of the Dead bread can be made in varying sizes from single servings to the size of a corpse, plain or filled with chocolate or caramel and in other shapes, such as rabbits.
My cousin taught me a Pan de Muerto joke. When something smells bad, you can say “huele de pan…” (it smells like bread) then after a comedic pause you deliver the punch line, “de muerto” (of the dead). I received solid chuckles when I tried it out.
Day of the Dead Papel Picado Day of the Dead decorations made from colorful tissue paper.
Photos The household or cemetery ofrenda will display a photo of the deceased placed prominently on the altar.
The Deceased’s Favorite Things or Items Once Owned by the Deceased While my uncle put out a bottle of rum for my grandparents, I’ve seen cigarettes, toys, books, a favorite dish and many other everyday items on altars.
Visiting the Day of the Dead Cemetery With my Uncle in Mexico City
I’ve never visited a cemetery on the Day of the Dead and as mentioned previously, my family doesn’t participate in this custom. However, my uncle surprised me on All Saints Day (November 2) announcing he’d take me. We headed out early evening to San Andrés Mixquic (also known as Mixquic), one of a handful of towns considered to have the best Día de Muertos events in Mexico.
While technically in the Mexico City borders, Mixquic was 30 miles or about an hour drive with normal traffic from our starting point, Coyoacán, a neighborhood of Mexico City. About two hours later we passed a town with a decorated plaza and market abuzz with Día de Muertos activity. My uncle announced we had arrived. According to my GPS, we still had about five miles to go (and two hours due to holiday traffic) to reach Mixquic. This was confirmed later when we left. We went in the opposite direction of how we arrived to catch the highway and I saw the line of cars headed to Mixquic. I didn’t have the heart to tell my uncle we never made it or he didn’t have the heart to tell me.
Tláhuac’s Día de Muertos Celebration
In San Pedro Tláhuac’s (Tláhuac), street market vendors sold the various offerings for household and cemetery altars (ofrendas). The church, the Museo Regional de Tláhuac and other locations in town were decorated with papel picado (tissue paper decorations) and displayed grand ofrendas (offerings or altars). The Museum was celebrating their second annual Festival de Las Almas in which they honored the 100th anniversary of the death of the Mexican artist, José Guadalupe Posada, whose famous socially-satirical etching, La Calavera Catrina serves as a foundation for Mexico’s modern-day Day of the Dead celebration.
The Enchanted Cemetery
We had walked three blocks, exploring the alters and placing pesos in children’s pumpkins, when we reached a cemetery illuminated by hundreds of candles. We strolled around the perimeter, careful to not intrude on private family moments. A few older women were sitting alone with their offerings, others were in groups light-heartedly talking about their day. We watched mariachi-for-hire groups sing the deceased’s favorite song and a group in indigenous ceremonial outfits dance to a single drum beat.
We never reached Mixquic but as is generally the case with exploration, the unexpected path can be the most rewarding.
DISCLAIMER: I do not encourage or think it’s appropriate for any non-Mexican to head to a cemetery during Day of the Dead unless invited by a Mexican. When I visited a cemetery in Mexico with my Mexican uncle he led the way. I tried to make myself as small as possible, following closely behind him. We stayed to the perimeter of the cemetery, never stared and when I took photos of the actual cemetery it was with my flash turned off and avoiding close ups of people at grave sites. The caveat to this is if you are attending an established festival that welcomes those not visiting a particular grave site.
To search for Day of the Dead festivals beyond what’s mentioned in this article use the following Mexican states as search terms:
- San Luis Potosí and Hidalgo
- Yucatán and Quinátana Roo
I love comments! Do you have any other Day of the Dead questions or your own experiences to share?